HIV stands for the human immunodeficiency virus:

H : Human being. This virus infects humans. I : Immunodeficiency. This virus attack on an individual’s immune system. Immune system is the human body’s defense against infection, like viruses and bacteria. When attacked by HIV, immune system will become deficient and does not work effectively. V : Virus. The virus is a kind of germs very small to be viewed even with the microscope. HIV is like other viruses, like those who causes the flu or common cold. But it has an important difference with time, our immune system can clear most viruses out of our body. It’s not the case with HIV the human immune system aren’t seem to get rid of this. Which means that after you have HIV, you will have it for lifetime.

What does the HIV virus do?

All the viruses infect living cells to reproduce. HIV gets control certain immune system cells which are likely to defend our bodies. These cells are known as CD4 cells, or T cells. If HIV takes over the CD4 cell, it transforms the cell to a virus factory. It makes the cell to generate 1000s of copies of the virus. All these copies infect other CD4 cells. Infected cells don not work effectively and die earlier. With time, the losing of CD4 cells weakens immune system, which makes it difficult for the body to keep healthy.

How is HIV transmitted?

HIV can be found in the body liquids of the infected individual, which include semen, vaginal and anal fluids, our blood and breast milk. This is a fragile virus and does not live long outside of the body.

HIV can’t be transmitted through ones sweat or urine.

The one most common way of getting HIV in the UK is having anal or vaginal sex without a condom. According to figures from the Health Protection Agency, 95% of the people diagnosed with HIV in the UK in 2011 obtained HIV due to sexual contact.

Some other ways of getting HIV includes:

  • by using a infected needle, syringe or some other injecting equipment
  • tranmission through mother to child in pregnancy, delivery or breastfeeding
  • via oral sex or sharing sex toys

HIV cannot be transmitted by:

  • Cough
  • Hug
  • Kiss
  • Sneezing
  • Spitting
  • Crying
  • Sharing Cutlery and crockery
  • Toilets and Showers
  • Mosquitoes

Background of Acanthamoeba

Acanthamoeba was initially established as the factor for human being disease in the early 1970s. This genus will cause Three medical syndromes: granulomatous amebic encephalitis, disseminated granulomatous amebic condition and amebic keratitis. People who develop GAE or disseminated problem are often immunocompromised, where as those that have amebic keratitis are generally immunocompetent. Disseminated disease and GAE have a poor diagnosis, and treatment strategies aren’t well described. Acanthamoeba keratitis can be a perception threatening condition which has a favorable prognosis when diagnosed and is treated earlier in the disease course.

What is Acanthamoeba?

Acanthamoeba is a microscopic free existing ameba in the atmosphere, but not usually causes infection. When infections occurs, however, it can be very severe and eyesight threatening. The ameba can be found around the globe in the atmosphere in water and soil. The ameba may be spread into the eye via contact lens use, cuts, and skin injuries or by being inhaled in to the lungs. Many people will be exposed to Acanthamoeba in their life-time, however few can become sick from this exposure.


What is the Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis?

A severe infection in the brain and spinal-cord which usually only occurs in individuals having a compromised immune system.

Disseminated infection can affect skin, sinuses, lungs, and other body organs alone or in combination. It might be more common in individuals with a compromised immune system.

Symptoms of Acanthamoeba

Acanthamoeba keratitis

The symptoms of Acanthamoeba keratitis can be quite similar to the symptoms of some other more common eye infections. The symptoms that may last a few weeks to months, won’t be the same for everyone and can include:

  • Eyes pain
  • Eyes redness
  • Blurred vision
  • Eyes sensitivity to light
  • Some Sensation in the eye
  • Excessive tearing

Eyes infection with Acanthamoeba never been proven to cause infections within other parts of the human body.

Granulomatous Encephalitis

Acanthamoeba may cause a serious, in most cases deadly, infections in the brain and spinal-cord known as Granulomatous Encephalitis (GAE).

When infected, an individual may suffer with severe headaches, stiff neck, nausea or vomiting, fatigue, confusion, loss of attention to people and environment, lack of balance and physical control, seizures, and hallucinations. Signs and symptoms progress more than many weeks and death usually happens. Skin infection usually do not always lead to disseminated disease.

Disseminated infection

Acanthamoeba may also cause a skin lesion and disseminated infections. These infections often occurs in people with a compromised immune systems.

Prevention from Acanthamoeba

These instructions should be followed by every contact lens user to help to reduce the risk of eye infections, including the Acanthamoeba keratitis:

  • Regularly visit for your eye examinations.
  • Wear and replace contact lenses as a schedule prescribed by your eye care expert.
  • Remove the contact lenses before doing any activity that involve contact with water, showering, using  hot tub and swimming.
  • Wash your hands using soap and water and don’t forgot to dry before handling contact lenses.
  • Clean the contact lenses as per instructions from your eye care provider and the manufacturer of lenses.
  • Store re-usable lense in the proper storage case.

Who is at the risk for infection with Acanthamoeba?

Acanthamoeba keratitis can be common that individuals who uselenses, howeveranybody can have the infection. For those who wear contact lenses, some practices mayraise the risk of having Acanthamoeba keratitis:

  • Storing and handling contact lenses improperly
  • Disinfecting the contact lenses improperly
  • Swimming, use of hot tub and showering with wearing contact lenses
  • Having a contact with contaminated water
  • Have a past diagnosis of of trauma to the cornea


Earlier medical diagnosis is important for efficient treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis. The infection is generally diagnosed by an eye medical specialist based upon symptoms, growth of the ameba from the scraping of your eyes, and viewing the ameba with a procedure named confocal microscopy.

Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis anddisseminated infections are usually more hard to diagnose and so are usually at advanced stages when it is diagnosed. Lab tests are useful in the diagnosis process of GAE involve brain scans, biopsies and spinal taps. In disseminated condition, biopsy of the involved sites may be useful in the diagnosis.

Treatment For Acanthamoeba

Earlier diagnosis is important for efficient treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis. Variousprescribed eye medicines are available for treatment. But, the infection may be hard to treat. The best treatment optionfor everyaffected person should be determined by an eye doctor. In case youthink your eye might be infected with Acanthamoeba, see an eye doctor without delay.

Skin infectionwhich aredue to Acanthamoeba but have not spread to yourcentral nervous system (cns)will be successfully handled. As this is a serious infection and the individuals affected normally have weaker immune systems.

Most all casesassociated with the brain and spinal cord infection with Acanthamoeba are critical.